Phrenology (from Greek: from, phren--“mind”--and logos--“knowledge”) is a method of determining personality traits and tendencies primarily by taking measurements of the human skull and its various structures, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules that are reflected in the shape of the skull covering a given area. Skulls like this were used as reference books by Phrenologists while analyzing patients. No longer practiced by mainstream scientists; Phrenology is still considered an important leap in the scientific understanding of the mind. The introduction of Phrenology marked the first time that science and the scientific method were applied to the understanding of the human mind, rather than religion, magic or other philosophical principles that had been applied before. Even though no longer practiced it is considered the father of all modern neuroscience.